Table 1

Clay minerals as ingredients for pharmaceutical formulations corresponding to routes of administration.

Route of administrationIssueDelivery systemMechanismReference
Oral
Gastrointestinal protectantProlonged deliveryAdsorptionAlestig et al. (1979), Takahashi et al. (2005), Bergaya and Lagaly (2013)
Laxatives, antidiarrheaProlonged deliveryOsmosisAlestig et al. (1979), Ippoliti (1998), Murray (2000), Carretero (2002), Classen et al. (2003)
Release patternSustained/Controlled/Extended/Retarded deliveryAdsorption/Desorption Intercalation/DeintercalationAlbert et al. (1978), Cypes et al. (2003), Levis and Deasy (2003), Byrne and Deasy (2005), Jung et al. (2008a), Forsgren et al. (2010), Hua et al. (2010), Dornelas et al. (2011), Mostafavi et al. (2011)
SolubilityImproved solubilityAdsorption
Intercalation
Jung et al. (2008), Park et al. (2008)
StabilityImproved stabilityAdsorption
Intercalation
El-Nahhal et al. (1999), Ambrogi et al. (2014)
Site-specific drug deliverySite-specific/Programmed/Target deliveryEnteric coating
Mucoadhesion
Targetability
Activation by environmental stimuli (pH, temperature)
Dobrozsi (2003), Dong and Feng (2005), Sun et al. (2008), Feng et al. (2009), Hua et al. (2010), Salcedo et al. (2012), de Sousa Rodrigues et al. (2013)
Improved organoleptic qualitiesSite-specific deliveryEnteric coating
Mucoadhesion
Intercalation
Lee et al. (2012), Jadhav et al. (2013), Oh et al. (2013)
Formulation additivesSustained/Controlled/Extended/Retarded deliveryIntercalation Exfoliation Electrostatic interactionBolger (1995), Viseras and Lopez-Galindo (1999), Abend and Lagaly (2000), Takahashi et al. (2005)
Transdermal
Aesthetic medicineTopical deliveryAdsorption
Promoted sebaceous secretions
Protections of external physical or chemical substances
Alleviation of pain
Antibacterial effect
Wound healing
Ferrand and Yvon (1991), Clark et al. (1998), Cara et al. (2000), Poensin et al. (2003), Veniale et al. (2004), Chang et al. (2007), Barral et al. (2008), Rutkai and Kristóf (2008), Hsu et al. (2012), Alavi et al. (2014)
SolubilityImproved solubilityAdsorption
Intercalation
Ito et al. (2001), Jo et al. (2006), Bonina et al. (2007), Ha and Xanthos (2011)
StabilityImproved stabilityAdsorption
Intercalation
Jo et al. (2006), Bonina et al. (2007), Pongjanyakul et al. (2009)
Release patternSustained/Controlled/Extended/Retarded deliveryAdsorption/Desorption
Intercalation/Deintercalation
Penetration of drug by diffusion
Ito et al. (2001), Bonina et al. (2007), Shaikh et al. (2007). Meng et al. (2009), Pongjanyakul et al. (2009), Ha and Xanthos (2011)
FillersSustained/Controlled/Extended/Retarded deliveryIntercalation
Exfoliation
Electrostatic interaction
Tan and Pfister (1999), Jo et al. (2006), Ha and Xanthos (2011), Irmukhametova et al. (2014)
Local
Local anestheticAbdel-Mohsen et al. (2001)
Implanted devicesSustained/Controlled/Extended/Retarded deliveryAdsorption/Desorption
Intercalation/Deintercalation
Kelly et al. (2004), Pongjanyakul and Suksri (2009), da Silva et al. (2011), Pinto et al. (2011), Sharifzadeh (2013)
StabilityImproved stabilityAdsorption
Intercalation
Pongjanyakul and Suksri (2009)
FillersSustained/Controlled/Extended/Retarded deliveryIntercalation
Exfoliation
Electrostatic interaction
Kelly et al. (2004), Wang et al. (2006), Da Silva et al. (2009, 2011), Pinto et al. (2011), Sharifzadeh (2013)
Passive coating layerDispersion
Transmission rate of water
Wittchow (2014)