Table 2

Biomedical applications with clay mineral-based hybrids.

Layer type— Clay mineral —Route of administrationDosage formReference
GroupOctahedral character (species)
1:1Serpentine-KaolinDioctahedral (Kaolinite, halloysite)OralSolid (tablets, capsule, powder)
Liquid (suspension, emulsion)
Albert et al. (1978), Alestig et al. (1979), Carretero (2002)
TopicalFilm and patchesSablotsky and Gentile (1994), Carretero (2002)
LocalPower and polymer mixturesCarretero (2002), Vergaro et al. (2010)
Talc-PyrophylliteTrioctahedral (Talc)OralSolid (tablets, capsules, powders)
Liquid (suspensions, emulsions)
Carretero (2002), Sohi et al. (2004), Viseras et al. (2010)
Buccal SublingualChewing gums and tabletsRaju et al. (2011), Jadhav et al. (2013)
TopicalCreams, ointments, and powdersGupte and Bogardus (1987), Carretero (2002), Lopez-Galindo et al. (2007)
RectalSuspensions, tabletsJadhav et al. (2013)
2:1SmectiteDioctahedral (Montmorillonite)OralSolid (tablets, capsules, powders)
Liquid (suspensions, emulsions)
Carretero (2002), Chang et al. (2007), Park et al. (2008)
TopicalCreams, ointments, and powdersIto et al. (2001), Carretero (2002)
TransdermalFilms and patchesAbdel-Mohsen et al. (2001), Carretero (2002)
RectalSuspensions, tabletsClassen et al. (2003), Suresh et al. (2010), de Sousa Rodrigues et al. (2013)
VaginalOintments, creams, gelsSharifzadeh (2013)
Trioctahedral (Saponite, Hectorite)OralSolid (tablets, capsules powders)
Liquid (suspensions, emulsions)
Carretero and Pozo (2010)
Sepiolite-PalygorskiteDioctahedral (Palygorskite)OralSolid (tablets, capsules, powders)
Liquid (suspensions, emulsions)
Viseras and Lopez-Galindo (1999), Carretero and Pozo (2010)
Trioctahedral (Sepiolite)TopicalEmulsions, creams, lotions, suspensionsGalán (1996), López-Galindo and Viseras (2004), Carretero and Pozo (2010)
RectalSuspensions, tabletsViseras et al. (2010), Almeida (2013)
VaginalTablets, ointments, creamSinger and Galán, (2011)